Diseases are responsible for yield losses in Mustard. Among several diseases, Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae), white rust + downy mildew complex (Albugo candida + Hyaloperonospora parasitica), Sclerotinia stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe cruciferarum) are considered as major diseases of mustard.
Aphid, Lipaphis, erysimi (Kalt), the mustard saw fly, Athalialugens proxima (Klug), the painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) and the leaf miner, Phytomyza horticola (Goureau) are considered as major pests of mustard. Among these, aphid, L. erysimi (Kalt) has been mentioned as the most important insects, infesting the crop right from seedling stage to maturity causing yield losses.
Diseases in wheat crop, can be responsible for 15%–20% yield losses per annum. Prominent diseases of wheat that currently contribute to these losses include the rusts, blotches and head blight/scab. Other recently emerged or relatively unnoticed diseases, such as wheat blast and spot blotch, respectively, also threaten grain production.
In India, wheat crop is generally considered to have fewer insect-pest problems in the field. However, with advent of rice–wheat cropping system in Indo-Gangetic plains following the “green revolution”, insects such as aphids, pink borer and armyworm that were hitherto considered as minor pests of wheat have been reported to inflict serious damage to the crop.